Report Text


Report text is a text that is used to describe things in general. If you want to know about definitions or descriptions about something, for instance animals, plants, natural fenomena, buildings, etc. you may open a text book or other reference books like dictionary or encyclopedia. This type of text is called a report text. Report texts can also be found in information leaflets, research paper, newspaper articles and investigation report. That’s why the purpose of a report text is to present information about something in general. Passive sentence is one of the language feature of the report text. For more understanding look at the following explanation.

To describe the ways things are, such as: a man-made things, animals, and plants.

Generic Structure:

1. General classification

Introduce the topic of the report, such as the classification or sub-classification

2. Identification/ Description

It describes the thing that will be discussed in detail. It describes the phenomenon in terms of parts (and their functions), qualities, habits or behaviors and way of survival (for living things

Language Features:

  • Generalized participants: a whole class of things (volcanoes, newspapers, the royal family)
  • Action verbs/material processes
  • Simple present tense. It states general thing, like: comodo dragon usually weight more tha 160 kg.
  • Language for defining, classifying, comparing, contrasting (are called, belong to, can be classified as, are similar to, are more powerful than)
  • May contain technical vocabulary e.g. water contains oxygen and hydrogen
  • Is written in a formal and objective style


Report texts do not only related with definitions and descriptions of fruits and animals, but also discuss about other things that can be classified and described in general. For example, we can talk about vehicles, buildings, computers, and many others, both concrete and abstract. Even you may discuss about professions. Below is another example of a report text.

The example of Report Text:


Australia is a large continent. It has six states and two territories.

The capital city of Australia is Canberra. It is in the Australian Capital Territory.

The population of Australia is about 20 million. The first inhabitants to live in Australia were Aboriginal people. After that people came from all over the world. The main language is English, however many other languages are spoken.

There are many plants and animals that are only found in Australia, e.g. kangaroos, platypuses, gum trees and Waratahs.

The main products and industries are wool, minerals, oil, coal, cereals and meat.

Some famous landmarks are the Harbour Bridge, the Opera House and Uluru (Ayers Rock).


Drugs are chemical substances. There are three different types of drugs: stimulants, depressants and hallucinogens.

Stimulants speed up the central nervous system. They increase heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. Examples are caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, ecstasy and cocaine.

Depressants slow down the central nervous system. They decrease heart and breathing rates. Alcohol, heroin and analgesics are common examples of these types of drugs.

Hallucinogens change mood, thought and senses. LSD is the most well-known example of this type of drug.

A traditional market

A traditional market is the type of market where people can bargain the prices. The items sold in traditional market are basically the same. They are fruits, vegetables, meat and fish, spices, dry good and household items. At the glances, the market may seem to be disorganized mess.

Surrounding the market there are many small scale traders, usually selling fruits. This traders can not afford the cost of renting a stall inside the market.

On the first floor of the market, there are permanent kiosks and stall selling textile, stationery, clothing, electronic goods, household appliances, gold shops, etc.

On the second floor, people can buy meat and fish, fruits, vegetables, and dry goods. The sellers sell fruits and vegetables through the middle area. Meanwhile they sell dry goods in the edge area of the second floor

Report Text Analysis:

White pelican

General Classification
The white pelican is one of the most successful fish eating birds. The success is largely due to its command hunting behavior. A group, perhaps two dozen birds, will gather in curved are some distance offshore. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them.


When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish, the formation breaks up as its meal. As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds, Foss is of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.

ex1_report text


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