A narrative text is a story that is created in a constructive format that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events.


  • It is used to amuse/entertain the readers that is to gain and hold the reader’s interest in a story.
  • It is used to teach and inform the writer’s reflections on experience
  • It can be imaginary or factual (fairy tales, mysteries, fables, romances, adventure stories, mythhs and legends), or it can also be a complicated event that leads to a crises that finally find a solution

Generic Structure:

1. Orientation

Sets the scene: where and when the story happened, introduces the participants of the story: who and what is involved in the story.

2. Complication

Tells the beginning of the problem which leads to the crisis (climax) of the main participants.

3. Resolution

The problem (the crisis) is resolved, either in a happy ending or in sad (tragic) ending.

4. Reorientation

This is a closing remark to the story and it is optional. It consists of a moral lesson, advice or teaching from the writer.

Language Features:

  • A narrative focuses on specific participants: often individual or participants with defines identities. Major participants are human, or sometimes animals with human characteristic.
  • Mainly use action, verbal or mental processes (verbs of perception: think, realize, feel, etc.)
  • It usually use past tenses (Simple Past Tense and Past Continuous Tense).
  • Direct and indirect speeches are often used (some dialogs are used in the story and the tense can change).
  • Descriptive language is used to create listeners’ or readers’ imagination.
  • Can be written in first person (I, We) or third person (he, she, and they) ( In choose – your-own-advantages, the reader is involved in the story a major character and addressed as” you”.
  • Temporal conjunctions are also used.
  • As the sentence introducers: Then,……. ; After that, ……. ; Finally, ……. etc.
  • As time introducers (adverbial clauses: …… before ….. ; After ….. ; While ….. During ….. etc.

The example of Narrative:



Once upon the time the live a little girl named snow White.

 Complication; Development of the crises

One day she heard her uncle and aunt talking About leaving Snow White in the castle because They both wanted to go to American and they Didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.

Resolution of the crises

Snow White did not want her uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away into the woods

 Complication; Development of the crises

Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep

Resolution of the crises

Mean while, she seven dwarfs were coming home from work They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up She saw the dwarfs said, “What is your name? Snow White said, “My name is Snow White” And, one of the dwarfs, said, “If you wish, You my live here with us. Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the hole story and snow white and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.


Malin Kundang

Once upon time, there was a boy named Malin Kundang. He lived with his mother in a very poor condition. They looked fire wood in the forest nearly to make a living. Malin Kundang was so unsatisfied with their bad luck. That’s why he decided to go to another city to look for a better life.

Not long afterwards, Malin asked his mother’s permission to go to a big city. He promised to come back soon with much money. His mother permitted him and always prayed for him. In his journey, Malin Kundang joined a merchant in a big ship.

Actually, Malin was a diligent boy. He worked hard to get much money and everything changed. He became a rich merchant. His business partner asked him to marry  his daughter. Malin agreed. Then Malin and his business partner’s daughter got married. They had honeymoon and traveled all over the world.

Many years later, Malin’s ship anchored in his village. Many villagers welcome his arrival and admired his glorious ship. Furthermore, they wanted to see his success. Malin’s mother heard that her son had come back. She was very glad and eager to see him. With a happy smile in her lips, she went to the seashore to meet her son. Do you know what happened when she met Malin? He pretended that he didn’t know her. Of course she was very very sad and disappointed.

In her desperation she cried to God to punish Malin. She cursed Malin Kundang and his ship to be a stone. Since then, people can see the big stone in the beach.


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